The X-ray characterization capabilities at MCLinc include XRF and XRD.

• X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF) is a nondestructive method for the qualitative and quantitative elemental analysis. The sample is irradiated, causing the emission of fluorescent x-rays to emerge from the sample. The x-rays are collected and displayed in a spectrum according to energy dispersive or wavelength dispersive.

• X-ray diffraction (XRD) takes advantages of the coherent scattering of x-rays by polycrystalline materials to obtain a wide range of quantitative and qualitative structural information. The x-rays are scattered by each set of lattice planes at a characteristic angle, and the scattered intensity is a function of the atoms which occupy those planes. Distortions in the lattice planes due to stress, solid solution, or other effects can be measured.